Learning Gardens for All: Diversity and Inclusion

By their nature, gardens embody diversity. This article explores the cultural significance and value of school gardens for diverse communities in restoring and reclaiming their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and resilience through stories, myths, and practical examples. It highlights details for experiential dimensions of garden based learning education. Grounded in the research-based, seven-fold benefits of garden-based sustainability education, this article is the international collaborative effort of garden researcher-practitioners from indigenous, multicultural, urban, biocultural, and STEM perspectives from over a half dozen different diversity-intensive urban learning gardens in the Pacific Northwest. It also describes dynamic experiential teaching approaches for sharing stories and engaging with hands-on approaches to garden-based learning at multiple scales and modes. Vivacious, research-based garden learning from regional learning gardens activates urban learning gardens as sites of diversity-enhancing sustainability education, nurturing the resilience and collaborative creativity required for biocultural flourishing.

Every Drop Counts: An Examination of the Causes, Consequences, and Solutions to the Drought Crisis in Brazil’s Southeast Region

Changes in Brazil’s climate have aggravated drought conditions, yet the government continues to favor populist policies over ensuring sustainable energy and water resources. This paper analyses the underlying environmental and policy conditions that have led to Brazil’s current power and water crisis and argues in favor of an overhaul of the federal energy infrastructure to reduce political influence in a regulated market and to improve initiatives of reforestation to mitigate the effects of climate change. The effects of poor climate and energy policies so clearly manifested in the Brazilian crisis should serve as a warning to other countries that sustainability is a choice, not a causal eventuality.

Fishing in Wastewaters: Fishery Models and Sanitation in Brazil

In 2015–2016, Brazil experienced an outbreak of infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitos (“Ædes ægypti”), which was associated with the lack of sanitation in densely populated urban areas. Regardless of the Sanitation Act which was enacted in 2007, half of the country’s population still lacks access to wastewater collection. This study assesses, through a bioeconomic model, which is usually applied to fishery management, the sanitation policy throughout the last two decades (1995–2014), when an outbreak of mosquitos had been taking place. Just like the rate of growth of fish stocks meets an upper bound when catches increase, the volume of wastewater collected ought to meet an environmental absorption limit. Therefore, a logistic, long-run program of wastewater collection is compared with the volume actually collected by state companies. Results suggest that these companies’ investments in sanitation facilities have been insufficient and inefficient. The maximum economic yield (MEY) occurred in 2003, whereas budgetary sanitation commitments peaked as of 2007.