In 2015–2016, Brazil experienced an outbreak of infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitos (“Ædes ægypti”), which was associated with the lack of sanitation in densely populated urban areas. Regardless of the Sanitation Act which was enacted in 2007, half of the country’s population still lacks access to wastewater collection. This study assesses, through a bioeconomic model, which is usually applied to fishery management, the sanitation policy throughout the last two decades (1995–2014), when an outbreak of mosquitos had been taking place. Just like the rate of growth of fish stocks meets an upper bound when catches increase, the volume of wastewater collected ought to meet an environmental absorption limit. Therefore, a logistic, long-run program of wastewater collection is compared with the volume actually collected by state companies. Results suggest that these companies’ investments in sanitation facilities have been insufficient and inefficient. The maximum economic yield (MEY) occurred in 2003, whereas budgetary sanitation commitments peaked as of 2007.
Environmental campaign awareness is a precursor to partaking in environmentally sustainable actions promoted by formal organizations. Although it is presumed relevant media visibility will lead to greater awareness, little research has investigated how media presence relates to individuals’ awareness of, or participation in, the national and international environmental campaigns available in Australia. This study presents key findings from secondary analysis of newspaper and Internet mentions of eight environmental organizations and compares this with an online survey of 412 higher education employees and students at an Australian university seeking to improve its organizational environmental sustainability literacy and activity levels. Findings reveal differential trends between media presence and specific campaigns as well as varied levels of awareness and participation among the campaigns. Contextualized in critical theory, key recommendations make conceptual and practical suggestions for augmenting communication and engagement strategies with environmental issues and groups in light of existing research.
Subsistence farming is one of the essential features of dryland regions to support people in coping with drought and rainfall variability. This paper examines the livelihoods of Atoin Meto, a tribal community that practices subsistence corn growing in dryland West Timor. It discusses the role of clan system and customary laws in the livelihoods of this tribal people. This study finds that the role of the Meto clan system and customary laws is twofold: It has contributed to reducing livelihood vulnerability in the region via the management of community forest resources and maintenance of members’ rights to access farmland and natural resources. On the other hand, it also provides the opportunity for a misuse of power by official village heads and hinders the process of development. Qualitative data were collected through group interviews, in-depth key informant interviews, and participant observation. This finding implies that in order for this tribe to increase its capacity for sustainable rural development in dryland regions, future development policy for this region needs to find ways and means to improve local governance and replace corrupt village officials.