Designing an Ethical System of Global Sustainability as a Purposeful System: GEBAT, Global Equity of the Burden Added Tax

Global sustainability is defined as a problem in a multi-dimensional state space where it presents as feasible region. The state of the global environment is controlled to stay within this feasible region through a Burden Added Tax (BAT). In a perfect market, BAT will assure most efficient use of environmental resources. However, it will not reduce, but rather exacerbate existing inequities. Analysis as a purposeful system leads to the Global Equitable Burden Added Tax (GEBAT), which assures an ethically sound and fair distribution of rights to issue environmental burdens to all states in proportion to their population. It defines equalization payments for over- and underuse of burdens. Within this framework every sovereign nation is free to manage environmental burdens as they choose. GEBAT can serve as the basis for global sustainability into an indefinite future. Technical details of implementation are discussed. Since GEBAT levels the playing field between developed and developing countries, any need for foreign aid is obviated.

Mass Tourists’ View of Sustainability: A Comparison between Two Destinations

The aim of this article is to examine how tourists value the performance of two mass tourism destinations with regard to sustainability. The study was conducted with a quantitative approach, using a questionnaire given to tourists at tourist offices on the island of Rhodes, Greece, and in Rimini, Italy. The questionnaire had scales measuring the tourists’ satisfaction with the destination and their hotels from a social and environmental sustainability point of view. The mass tourists were prompted to rate the level of importance of those factors. The study concludes that mass tourists view environmental sustainability’s value at the two mass tourism destinations differently. The mass tourists in Rhodes do not see environmental sustainability as an important value. The mass tourists in Rimini indicate improvement in some environmental variables as important to the tourists’ satisfaction. Another conclusion is that the mass tourists do not prioritize sustainability issues when travelling and are mainly travelling to the destination for sun, sea, and sand. Therefore, the challenge is to make them aware of and to value social and environmental sustainability. The theoretical contribution from this study is that there is a fifth paradigm where sustainable tourism and value co-creation is in focus. The practical implication from this study is that destinations must be aware of what tourists’ value as important attribute since mass tourist destinations mainly attract tourist that want sun, sea, and sand.

A Sociocultural Insight to Feminist Activist Sustainable Citizenship

This article considers the active role of the female citizen within sustainable advocacy. The notion of being an advocate or an activist relates to social, cultural, economic, and political dimensions, in which I locate sustainable citizenship through social and environmental justice, social change, equality, ethical understandings of humanity and the natural world, and renewable technologies (Gaard 2001, 2011; Carter 2013; Caldicott 2014, 2017). Ecofeminist and environmental justice scholarship contextualizes women’s struggle to exercise environmental active citizenship within patriarchal economic hierarchies (Rankin and Gale 2003; Mallory 2006; Smith and Pangsapa 2008; Spitzner 2009; Walby 2011; Maleta 2015). Uneven social dimensions of gender, class, status, power, and ethnicity/race have influenced the global environmental justice movement and the challenge of equal citizenship (Doyle 2005; Horton 2006; Carter 2007; Barry 2008; Clements 2008). Grassroots ecological activists around the world struggle for social justice against a background of economic opportunism and exploitation (Stein 2004; Mellor 2009; Maleta 2011a, 2011b; Cockburn 2012). Although citizenship is historically connected with masculinity/men, women’s activism is challenging gender representations. Feminism also challenges current governance structures. The article concludes that women grassroots campaigners and politicians of diverse sociocultural backgrounds play a strong leadership role in the future of sustainable citizenry. Also, the greater unity of women in the global North and South is a stage for renewables economic reforms (Shiva 2014, 2016).